At FEMTO-ST, three thin film deposition techniques are available: two PVD techniques (Physical Vapour Deposition) which are sputtering and evaporation and one CVD technique (Chemical Vapour Deposition) plasma assisted (PECVD).
A material is sputtered on the substrate by means of an argon plasma. To do so, several machines are available:
- an ALCATEL system fitted with a radio-frequency generator adapted to insulator and conductive materials on which three gas lines are available: argon, nitrogen, oxygen.
- a PLASSYS machine with two direct current generators (a high-power generator and another one regulated in intensity) with only one argon line.
These two types of sputtering machines enable to obtain either well-controlled thickness thin films with reduced overheating or thicker films (micrometer range). To improve sputtering performances, both machines are fitted with magnetron cathodes for which ion and electron flows are confined with a magnetic field. A third system completes the other ones for thin piezoelectric layers deposition: it is an aluminium nitride reactive sputtering machine.
Evaporation machine, the material heating is performed with a focus electron beam. More frequently deposited materials: Al,Ti,Au,Cr.
Thin film deposition by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour deposition (PECVD).